/futures jun 12 '18
Demise of four out of 13 of the ancient landmarks linked to climate change by researchers

Some of Africa’s oldest and biggest baobab trees have abruptly died, wholly or in part, in the past decade, according to researchers. The trees, aged between 1,100 and 2,500 years and in some cases as wide as a bus is long, may have fallen victim to climate change, the team speculated.

“We report that nine of the 13 oldest … individuals have died, or at least their oldest parts/stems have collapsed and died, over the past 12 years,” they wrote in the scientific journal Nature Plants, describing “an event of an unprecedented magnitude”.

“It is definitely shocking and dramatic to experience during our lifetime the demise of so many trees with millennial ages,” said the study’s co-author Adrian Patrut of the Babeș-Bolyai University in Romania.

Among the nine were four of the largest African baobabs. While the cause of the die-off remains unclear, the researchers “suspect that the demise of monumental baobabs may be associated at least in part with significant modifications of climate conditions that affect southern Africa in particular”.

Further research is needed, said the team from Romania, South Africa and the United States, “to support or refute this supposition”.

Between 2005 and 2017, the researchers probed and dated “practically all known very large and potentially old” African baobabs – more than 60 individuals in all. Collating data on girth, height, wood volume and age, they noted the “unexpected and intriguing fact” that most of the very oldest and biggest trees died during the study period. All were in southern Africa – Zimbabwe, Namibia, South Africa, Botswana, and Zambia.

The baobab is the biggest and longest-living flowering tree, according to the research team. It is found naturally in Africa’s savannah region and outside the continent in tropical areas to which it was introduced. It is a strange-looking plant, with branches resembling gnarled roots reaching for the sky, giving it an upside-down look. The iconic tree can live to be 3,000 years old, according to the website of the Kruger National Park in South Africa, a natural baobab habitat.

The tree serves as a massive store of water, and bears fruit that feeds animals and humans. Its leaves are boiled and eaten as an accompaniment similar to spinach, or used to make traditional medicines, while the bark is pounded and woven into rope, baskets, cloth and waterproof hats. The purpose of the study was to learn how the trees become so enormous. The researchers used radiocarbon dating to analyse samples taken from different parts of each tree’s trunk. They found that the trunk of the baobab grows from not one but multiple core stems. According to the Kruger Park, baobabs are “very difficult to kill”.

“They can be burnt, or stripped of their bark, and they will just form new bark and carry on growing,” it states. “When they do die, they simply rot from the inside and suddenly collapse, leaving a heap of fibres.”

Of the 10 trees listed by the study authors, four died completely, meaning all their multiple stems toppled and died together, while the others suffered the death of one or several parts.

The oldest tree by far, of which all the stems collapsed in 2010/11, was the Panke tree in Zimbabwe, estimated to have existed for 2,500 years. The biggest, dubbed Holboom, was from Namibia. It stood 30.2 metres (99 feet) tall and had a girth of 35.1 m.


Nate Kleinman from the Experimental Farm Network showed a very special baby Baobab during the Philadelphia Assembled exhibition.

Expect Big Things
Baby Baobab seedling (Adansonia digitata), 1 year old, from a St. Croix-grown seed, in Aura gravelly coarse sandy loam soil from Salem County, NJ.
Original seed courtesy of Eliot Ballard

The iconic African Baobab is the original “Tree of Life.” It lives for thousands of years, surviving drought, flood, and even fire. As a prehistoric species native to the African savannah, this tree has provided food, shelter, and a center for culture and community across generations.

The parent of this particular Baobab seedling is planted on the island of St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands. While not native to the Caribbean, this species grows on many islands once covered by plantations. The person, or people, who first planted these St. Croix Baobab trees remain unknown, but we can imagine the outlines of their story.

The Baobab is so special that enslaved Africans managed - against all odds - to smuggle some of its seeds across the ocean. Although stripped of all physical belongings, ripped from their homeland, starved, and brutalized, they found a way to carry a piece of home with them. We can only guess if those seeds were sewn into clothing, or hidden in mouths (Baobab seeds are known to maintain viability for at least 6 months in seawater), but we can know that someone took a risk in the face of horror and profound uncertainty, so that a Baobab might live.

Descending from an act of resistance against oppression, this tree is thus a bridge to the past and a symbol of the future. It is a small thing now, but it will not always be so.

Based in New Jersey, Experimental Farm Network facilitates collaboration on plant breeding and sustainable agriculture research in order to fight global climate change, preserve the natural environment, and ensure food security for humanity into the distant future.